By Amy Wallace, Josh Marshall and Autumn Lonon
The history of beer is a long one. Beer has been brewed for thousands of years and the first archeological evidence of a brewed beer was in 7000 B.C.
Likewise, the beer brewing process itself takes time, sometimes up to two weeks. The Morgantown Brewing Company brews eight of their own beers. Master Brewer Brian Anderson and Assistant Brewer Tony Kline gave a tour of their brewery and explained the process of how to make beer.
These definitions are provided by Craft Beer website in the order they appear in the video.
Fermentation: The chemical conversion of fermentable sugars into approximately equal parts of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas, through the action of yeast. The two basic methods of fermentation in brewing are top fermentation, which produces ales, and bottom fermentation, which produces lagers.
Yeast: During the fermentation process, yeast converts the natural malt sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Yeast was first viewed under a microscope in 1680 by the Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; in 1867, Louis Pasteur discovered that yeast cells lack chlorophyll and that they could develop only in an environment containing both nitrogen and carbon.
Mash Tun: The vessel in which grist (defined below)0 is soaked in water and heated in order to convert the starch to sugar and to extract the sugars, colors, flavors, and other solubles from the grist.
Mash: A mixture of ground malt (and possibly other grains) and hot water that forms the sweet wort (defined below) after straining.
Hops: There are presently over one hundred varieties of hops cultivated around the world. Apart from contributing bitterness, hops impart aroma and flavor, and inhibit the growth of bacteria in wort and beer. Hops are added at the beginning (bittering hops), middle (flavoring hops), and end (aroma hops) of the boiling stage, or even later in the brewing process (dry hops).
Kraeusen: The rocky head of foam which appears on the surface of the wort during fermentation.
Other important beer terms:
Ale: Ales are beers fermented with top fermenting yeast. Ales typically are fermented at warmer temperatures than lagers, and are often served warmer.
Barley: Barley is used as a base malt in the production of beer and certain distilled spirits, as well as a food supply for humans and animals.
Grist: Ground malt and grains ready for mashing.
Growler: A jug- or pail-like container once used to carry draft beer bought by the measure at the local tavern. Growlers are usually ½ gal (64 oz) in volume and made of glass. Brewpubs often serve growlers to sell beer to-go. Often a customer will pay a deposit on the growler but can bring it back again and again for a re-fill.
Keg: A cylindrical container, usually constructed of steel or sometimes aluminum,
commonly used to store, transport, and serve beer under pressure.
Lager: Lagers are any beer that is fermented with bottom fermenting yeast at colder temperatures. Lagers are most often associated with crisp, clean flavors and are traditionally fermented and served at colder temperatures than ales.
Microbrewery: As defined by the Brewers Association: A brewery that produces less than 15,000 barrels of beer per year with 75% or more of its beer sold off.
Wort: The bittersweet sugar solution obtained by mashing the malt and boiling in the hops, which becomes beer through fermentation.
Yum: The term Master Brewer Brian Anderson uses while drinking the beer brewed at the Morgantown Brewing Company.